ACB – aorto-coronary bypass
Anemia – a condition without enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to the body’s tissues. The symptoms are fatigue, pale skin, dizziness, headache, faster breathing, increased heart rate. Blood examination shows decreased hemoglobin levels
Antithrombotic drugs – medications lowering the blood clot formation risk
Anticoagulation – also called blood dilution
Aortic insufficiency (regurgitation, failure)- aortic valve closure failure causing blood to reentry from the aorta into the left ventricle
Aortic stenosis – a narrowing of the aortic valve orifice that prevents blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta
Arterial blood pressure – Blood pressure readings up to 140 (systolic, mmHg) over 90 (diastolic, mmHg (140/90) are considered normal. For patients over 70-80 years, 150 mmHg systolic pressure is also acceptable. Higher values are called arterial hypertension. High blood pressure is classified as either primary (essential) high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure, when caused by other disease like kidney or endocrine disorders.
A random low blood pressure reading, without any symptoms, is not a cause for alarm. However, when accompanied by fatigue, dizziness or briefly loss of consciousness it is called arterial hypotension and needs to be consulted by cardiologist. Seek cardiological consultation.
Arterial hypertension – a pathological blood pressure elevation over 140/90 mmHg
Atherosclerosis – a chronic, progressive disease, involving the inner layer of the body’s great and medium arteries. Fat-based plaque accumulates on the inside of the arteries and causes the vessels to narrow and stiff
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers – antihypertensive medication
ACE inhibitors – blockers of angiotensin converting enzyme. They are one of the main groups of arterial hypertension treatment medications
AV block – a disturbance of the electrical impulses between the atria and ventricles. AV blockers have three degrees and the 3rd is life-threatening and requires a pacemaker implantation.
AVB – atrium ventricular block
AF – atrial fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation – chaotic electrical stimulation of the atrium, with an uncoordinated muscle cells contraction
Atrial flutter – fast, unregular and chaotic stimulation of the atriums with rate 350 – 600 beats/
AVR – aortic valve replacement
ACS – acute coronary syndrome
AMI – acute myocardial infarction
B-blockers – heart rate reducing drugs. They are used for hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias, ischemic heart disease treatment.
Bradycardia – slow heart rate
Cardiac arrest – a stop of the heart’s mechanical activity, associated with loss of pulse, no breathing and loss of consciousness.
Ca channel antagonist – drugs blocking the calcium channel in the cells. They have a vascular dilation effect and are used for hypertension treatment.
Chest pain – when present during physical exercise but relieves with rest, usually a symptom of stable angina pectoris – one of the ischemic heart disease types. Seek cardiology consultation right away.
COPD – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Cholesterol – cholesterol is present in all human body cells. It is necessary for their appropriate function and also to produce some vital hormones.
In case of elevated cholesterol levels, there is a risk of fat accumulation in the coronary artery walls, which disturbs the blood flow. This leads to an insufficiently oxygen-rich blood supply to the heart and increases the risk of myocardial infarction. The insufficient blood supply to the brain could cause a stroke. The elevated cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) to a great extent is a preventable and curable condition. Healthy nutrition, regular physical exercise can help, medications can also be prescribed if needed.
Cardioversion – is a medical procedure by which an abnormally fast heart rate (tachycardia) or other cardiac arrhythmia is converted to a normal rhythm using electricity or drugs.
Computed tomography – a high resolution scanner. It is used for heart structures and coronary arteries examination
Coronary arteries – small arteries, supplying the heart. Coronary artery occlusion leads to myocardial infarction
CPR – cardio-pulmonary resuscitation
CT – computed tomography
Dyslipidemia – a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism with an imbalance between the “good” high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, increasing the cardiovascular diseases risk
Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCMP) – a condition when the heart is enlarged leading to disturbance of its contraction and pump failure
Diuretics – medications that stimulate the urine production. They are used to treat hypertension, heart failure, kidney disease
Doppler echography – ultrasound, sonographic examination
Electrocardiogram (ECG) – examination of the heart electrical activity. Electrodes are placed on the patient’s chest, arms and legs to detect the heart’s electrical impulses. It is painless.
ECG stress test – ECG examinations are tests where a patient is tested on a veloergometer or treadmill with gradual resistance elevationtions, during which the patient is observed for changes in the ECG, heart rate and blood pressure. In case of ECG changes or chest pain the test is terminated.
Extrasystole – a premature contraction of the heart, a heartbeat outside the normal rhythm
Endocardium – The internal surface of the heart
Echocardiography – imaging of the heart chambers and valves with ultrasound waves. It takes ca. 10-15 min and is painless
Heart failure (HF) – a pathological condition where a patient has insufficient heart power to pump blood to the rest of the body, causing insufficient oxygen supply to the tissues and metabolism disturbance.
Hypercholesterolemia – elevated cholesterol levels in the blood plasma
Holter ECG – device similar to mobile phone, attached to the patient for 24 hours which continuously records the hearts electrical activity
HHD – hypertensive heart disease
HCHF – chronic congestive heart failure
ITA – internal thoracic artery
Isheamic heart disease (IHD) – a condition where one or more coronary artery gets narrowed or occluded, the heart muscle does not get enough oxygen and the heart function is disturbed. IHD is one of the most common heart diseases.
Isheamic cerebrum stroke (ICS)
Infective endocarditis – an infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. In 90 % of the cases, it is caused by a bacterial infection of streptococci or staphylococci. The bacteria enters the blood through different inflammatory sites in the body and reaches the endocardium.
IDD – Insulin dependent diabetes
IID – Insulin independent diabetes
JVE – jugular venous edema
LAM – Lymphadenomegalia
LBBB – left bundle branch block
LDL – low density lipoprotein, so called “bad” cholesterol
LPHB – left posterior hemiblock
LAHB – left anterior hemiblock
LAD – left anterior descending artery
LIMA – left internal mammary artery
Myocardium – heart muscle
Myocarditis – inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium)
DES – drug-eluting stent
MVO – mitral valve orifice
Mitral stenosis – mitral valve orifice stenosis, disturbing the blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle
Mitral insufficiency (regurgitation, failure) – failure of the mitral valve closure during systole, leading to a return of blood flow from the left ventricle to the left atrium
MVR – mitral valve replacement
Nitrates – medications (the most famous is nitroglycerine), producing nitric oxide in the blood, acting through vasodilatation and used for hypertension treatment
Obesity – the state of being excessively overweight which has an extremely negative effect on a person’s health
Palpitations – a condition of an increased heart rate. Usually the patients feel the elevated heart beats and seeks medical help. Heart palpitations are typically experienced in the chest, throat or neck. The palpitations generally disappear on their own.
Pacemaker (electro cardiostimulator) – a device with the size of a hand watch, implanted in the patients left or right infraclavicular region, which influences the heart rhythm. The main purpose is to support the heart’s rhythm.
PECS – permanent electro cardio stimulator
Pericarditis – inflammation of the pericardium (the fibrous sac surrounding the heart)
Pulmonary embolism – pulmonary artery blockage. Symptoms include shortness of breath and chest pain.
PTE – pulmonary thromboembolism
PWLV – left ventricle posterior wall
RBBB – right bundle branch block
RHR – regular heart rate
Selective coronary angiography (SCA) – imaging examination- the patient is injected with a contrast material, which helps determine the presence of stenosis in the heart vessels through an x-ray examination.
Stress ECG (stress test) – a method of evaluating the condition and functional capacity of the cardiovascular system during physical exercise. It plays a major role in myocardial ischemia demonstration
Syncope – short-term loss of consciousness due to insufficient blood supply to the brain
SCAG – selective coronary angiography
Stable angina pectoris (SAP) – a reoccurring short-term chest pain, caused by transient insufficient myocardial oxygen delivery. It is provoked by exercise or emotional stress and is relieved by rest and/or nitroglycerin.
Statins – medications, lowering the cholesterol levels
SLN – superficial lymph nodes
Tachycardia – an increased heart rate
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) – heart muscle imaging with a device introduced in the patient’s esophagus
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) – a short term condition (minutes to hours) with neurological symptoms, caused by insufficient blood supply to different cerebrum areas
Troponin T and I (TnT, TnI) – highly specific markers for myocardial infarction. It’s evaluated through a blood sampling.
TECS – temporary electro cardio stimulator
Ventriculography – an examination of the heart chambers through an injection of roentgen positive substances. This allows heart chamber’s evaluation and possible defect investigation.
VT – ventricle tachycardia
Ventricle tachycardia – one of the most serious disorders of the heart rhythm. It is a contraction of the ventricles over 100 b/min and causes hemodynamic collapse. It requires urgent defibrillation.
Ventricle fibrillation – a condition, similar to ventricle flutter but waves that are chaotic (fibrillated) and different in shapes and widths . The ventricle contractions are ineffective, the blood supply is terminated and death occurs in several minutes. Emergency electroshock is needed.
Ventricle flutter – life-threatening arrhythmia without heart contractions, the patients loses consciousness. Emergency electroshock is needed.
v.s.g. – vena saphena graft